Organizzazione della Didattica


Applied electronics


Physics of the fundamental interactions


Frontali Esercizi Laboratorio Studio Individuale
ORE: 48 0 0 85


I anno2 semestre







Calendario Attività Didattiche



affine/integrativo Nessun ambitoFIS/016

Responsabile Insegnamento

Prof. GIUBILATO PIEROFIS/01Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei" - DFA

Altri Docenti


Attività di Supporto alla Didattica

Non previste


- Basic solid-state physics on semiconductors (crystal lattice, Fermi distribution, levels energy distribution, etc.) - Analogue electronics (linear networks, active and passive devices, amplifiers, operational amplifiers, filters, etc.) - Standard programming languages (syntax, structure, use of libraries, etc.) - Basic knowledge of computational software (e.g. Mathematica, Matlab)

The successful participant will learn how/to: - An integrated circuit is designed and produced. - Design a logic circuit through HDL description. - Realize a logic function/algorithm and run it in a FPGA. - Perform an actual task using FPGA hardware. - Render a FPGA design tolerant to a radiation environment.

- Frontal lectures - Interactive simulation of device/circuits with PSpice simulator. - Interactive lessons with HDL synthesis and simulation of the circuits under discussion. - System behavior modelling with Mathematica notebooks. - Implementation of firmware in FPGA development boards.

- Basic knowledge of device physics, diode and transistor, either BJT or MOS. - Principle of working of the diode and the transistor (BJT and MOS). Ssimplified physical model of the MOS (implants, gate, oxide) and how this influences its performances (parasitic capacitance, power consumption, etc.) - Basic circuits using diodes and transistor for specific purposes (rectifier, voltage pump, etc...). - MOS transistor dynamic behavior, linear region, inversion region, saturation region, power consumption, speed, parasitics, etc. - --- Basic microelectronics manufacturing concepts (lithography, feature size, etc...). - Basic logic gates (NOT, AND, NAND, ...) and their realization with CMOS transistors. More complex basic logic blocks like the adder, the multiplexer and the parity checker. Timing and power considerations in the realization of the basic gates. Boolean algebra basics (DeMorgan’s theorems) and its applications to basic gates combinations. - Memory elements building blocks: mono-stable, bi-stable, S-R flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, D flip-flop and their properties. Look Up Tables and their usage for representing arbitrary functions. Actual memories type and use in computer and other logic: ROM, RAM, FLASH, EPROM, basic characteristics, behavior and device realization. - Digital microelectronics basics: analog computers, noise margin, integration processes, microprocessors, Moore's law, the limit of scaling, analog/digital signal interface. Different level of design (system, behavioural, RTL, gates, transistor, device, ...) and the associate languages/tools.. - HDL languages and simulation tools of the trade: SPICE, what it is and how it works, ideal elements vs. real elements, MOS transistor basic model, example of IV curves for a MOS, response of an inverter and an operational amplifier. Verilog language scope and basics, concept of synthesis and simulation code, modules encapsulation, timebase definitions, some elementary syntax and constructs (especially the synchronous blocks like always, etc..). - Synchronous systems: how to deal with large system by using a common time-base. The clock properties (frequency, jitter) and implications. Usage of memory elements to build a complete synchronous system. Finite State Machines types, principle of operation, and building elements. FSM analytical description and basic coding in Verilog. - Implementation of simple synchronous circuits in FPGA through Verilog description. Definition of inputs, outputs, clock, and reset. Usage of device primitive for high-frequency clock domains. Usage of registers and counters. Implementation of simple state machines, connection of modules in a hierarchical structure. Simple IO interfaces (buttons, LEDs). Concept of synchronous communication over a single data line. - Complex systems behavior and modelling, with special focus on radiation tolerance/resistance and mitigation techniques and topologies. Failure rate estimation through Markov Chains, protection schemes and their effectiveness, practical implementation.

Oral exam

The criteria for the evaluation of the oral test take into account the correctness of contents, arguing clarity and critical analysi

T.H.Wilmshurst, Analog Cirtuit Techniques. : , W.Kleitz, Digital Electronics - A Practical Approach with VHDL. : , A. Laicata, Circuiti elettronici. : ,

- Slides shown during the lectures (see related Moodle page) - PSPice code for analogue simulations - Verilog code for digital simulations - Mathematica notebooks for system failure modeling